Brand Attributes

Attributes are more often used when referring to products rather than brands. A product’s attribute might be a function or a feature. These functions and features often lead to consumer benefits.

Brands can have attributes too. Brand attributes are a bundle of features that highlight the physical and personality traits of the brand. They are similar to the attributes that allow us to consistently identify individuals.

Attributes are developed through images, actions, or presumptions. Brand attributes help in creating brand identity.

The top 10 attributes used by consumers when evaluating the value of a brand, product or service are:

1. Product works well/tastes good 81 Quality
2. Can use it fully without waste 69 Consumption
3. Just the right amount I need 67 Consumption
4. Despite the fact I prefer lower prices, quality still matters with regard to value 66 Quality
5. Assurance of hassle-free returns 64 Consumption
6. Getting the absolute lowest price possible 62 Price
7. It makes my life easier and less complicated 58 Experience
8. Provides an enjoyable usage experience 58 Experience
9. Saves me time when using it 57 Experience
10. Improves my quality of life 57 Consumption

Excerpt from A Hartman Group Industry Analysis – April 2010

Press Releases

Definition of Press Release: A press release, news release, media release or a press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media and other targeted publications.

Purpose: To announce something newsworthy. To let the public know of company or organization’s developments.

Advantage: Think of a press release as your ticket to publicity–one that can get your company coverage in publications or on TV and radio stations.

Need to stand out: Editors and reporters get hundreds of press releases a day.

So how can you make your press release stand out?

  1. Reason: Be sure you have a reason for sending a press release. A grand opening, a new product or a special event are all good reasons.
  2. Target: Make sure your press release is targeted for the publication or broadcast you’re sending it to. The editor of Health and Beauty is not going to be interested in the trading software you invented. Do not make the mistake of sending press releases without considering a publication’s audience.
  3. Format: Follow the standard format: typed, double-spaced, on white letterhead with a contact person’s name, title, company, address and phone number in the upper right-hand corner. Don’t forget to put a brief, eye-catching headline in bold type and a dateline – for example, “New York NY, May 30, 20017” – leading into the first sentence of the release.
  4. Length: Limit your press release to one or two pages at most. It should be just long enough to cover the six basic elements: who, what, when, where, why and how. The answers to these six questions should be mentioned in order of their importance to the story.
  5. Facts: Do not hype exaggerate the information. Write using short, clear sentences and stick to facts.

Brand Visibility

Brand = promise of satisfaction.
Visibility = the degree to which something has attracted general attention; prominence.
Brand Visibility = Ability of a brand to be found by prospective buyers.

Companies do different things to improve visibility of their brands.


  1. Real Estate: Remax reminds of their presence using their giant balloons.
  2. Software: Cloud services provider Zendesk invested time and energy in creating a fake brand Zendeskalternative – a site that serves a behind-the-scenes video interview of alternative-punk band Zendesk. In reality, the entire existence of the Zendesk alternative punk band is a marketing ploy by cloud-based customer support service Zendesk. After realizing the traffic for the phrase “Zendesk alternative” was on the rise, they decided to take SEO matters in their own hand.
  3. Hardware: Laptops feature the Intel stickers. Also in 1994, Intel commissioned composer Walter Werzowa to create a three-second jingle for the Intel Inside TV commercials. The five-note “Intel Bong” now has been around for more than 20 years and is one of the world’s most recognizable sounds.
  4. Healthcare: Cancer Treatment Centers of America (CTCA®) has an innovative arrangement with WebMD, with whom CTCA has worked collaboratively to provide visitors across WebMD’s Consumer Network with comprehensive and actionable information about the latest developments in cancer care. (CTCA won the Gold Award in the “Best Service Line Campaign” category for its overall marketing communications program and the Silver Award for “Best Digital Campaign”.)
  5. Banking: Citibank partnered with convenience store brand 7-11 and installed ATM kiosks. This helped improve Citibank’s visibility at thousands of non-bank locations.
  6. Retail: In retail, branded shopping bags are commonplace to improve brand visibility.

Your business brand becomes visible by being seen, being read, and by being shared.

Visibility can be achieved both through word of mouth as well as with the help of marketing and latest web initiatives.

Difference between using a ™ and ® sign with a Brand Name

You may notice a brand name with a small superscript ™ or ®.

This article explains the difference between a ™ and ® symbol.

The ™ sign is used when a trademark registration file is under process for that brand name; there is no such prohibition in India if you start using a ™ sign with your brand name before filing a registration application.

The procedure to register a trademark can take up to 2 years after you file the registration application.

Once registered, you can start using ® symbol with your brand name.

Trademark Classification in India

The new Trade Marks, 1999 and the Trade Marks Rules, 2002 of India, are in close conformity and consistency with most of the globally recognized and influential trademark conventions and treaties, to promote worldwide business and trade.

In India, there are 34 classes for goods and 11 for services.

Trademark Classification of Goods

Class 1.- Chemicals

Chemical used in industry, science, photography, agriculture, horticulture and forestry; unprocessed artificial resins, unprocessed plastics; manures; fire extinguishing compositions; tempering and soldering preparations; chemical substances for preserving foodstuffs; tanning substances; adhesive used in industry.

Class 2.- Paints

Paints, varnishes, lacquers; preservatives against rust and against deterioration of wood; colorants; mordents; raw natural resins; metals in foil and powder  form for painters; decorators; printers and artists.

Class 3.- Cosmetics & cleaning preparations

Bleaching preparations and other substances for laundry use; cleaning; polishing; scouring and abrasive preparations; soaps; perfumery, essential oils, cosmetics, hair lotions, dentifrices.

Class 4.- Oil & Lubricants

Industrial oils and greases; lubricants; dust absorbing, wetting and binding compositions; fuels- including motor spirit and illuminants; candles, wicks.

Class 5.- Pharmaceuticals

Pharmaceutical, veterinary and sanitary preparations; dietetic substances adapted for medical use, food for babies; plasters, materials for dressings; materials for stopping teeth, dental wax; disinfectants; preparation for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides.

Class 6.- Metal Goods

Common metals and their alloys; metal building materials; transportable buildings of metal; materials of metal for railway tracks; non-electric cables and wires of common metal; ironmongery, small items of metal hardware; pipes and tubes of metal; safes; goods of common metal not included in other classes; ores.

Class 7.- Machinery

Machines and machine tools; motors and engines- except for land vehicles; machine coupling and transmission components- except for land vehicles; agricultural implements other than hand-operated; incubators for eggs.

Class 8.- Hand Tools

Hand tools and implements- hand-operated; cutlery; side arms; razors.

Class 9.- Scientific & Electrical  Equipment, Computers

Scientific, nautical, surveying, electric, photographic, cinematographic, optical, weighing, measuring,

signalling, checking- supervision, life saving and teaching apparatus and instruments; apparatus for recording, transmission or reproduction of sound or images; magnetic data carriers, recording discs; automatic vending machines and mechanisms for coin-operated apparatus; cash registers, calculating machines, data processing equipment and computers; fire extinguishing apparatus.

Class 10.- Medical Equipment

Surgical, medical, dental and veterinary apparatus and instruments, artificial limbs, eyes and teeth; orthopaedic articles; suture materials.

Class 11.- Lighting Equipment

Apparatus  for lighting, heating, steam generating, cooking, refrigerating, drying ventilating, water supply and sanitary purposes.

Class 12.- Vehicles

Vehicles; apparatus for locomotion by land, air or water.

Class 13.- Firearms

Firearms; ammunition and projectiles; explosives; fire works.

Class 14.- Jewellery

Precious metals and their alloys and goods in precious metals or coated therewith, not included in other classes; jewellery, precious stones; horological and other chronometric instruments.

Class 15.- Musical Instruments

Musical instruments.

Class 16.- Stationery & Printed Matter

Paper, cardboard and goods made from these materials, not included in other classes; printed matter; bookbinding material; photographs; stationery; adhesives for stationery or household purposes; artists’ materials; paint brushes; typewriters and office requisites- except furniture; instructional and teaching material- except apparatus; plastic materials for packaging- not included in other classes; playing cards; printers’ type; printing blocks.

Class 17.- Rubber Goods & Flexible Pipes

Rubber, gutta percha, gum, asbestos, mica and goods made from these materials and not included in other classes; plastics in extruded form for use in manufacture; packing, stopping and insulating materials; flexible pipes, not of metal.

Class 18.- Leather Goods

Leather and imitations of leather, and goods made of these materials and not included in other classes; animal skins, hides, trunks and travelling bags; umbrellas, parasols and walking sticks; whips, harness and saddlery.

Class 19.- Non-Metallic Building Materials & Rigid Pipes

Building materials,- non-metallic, non-metallic rigid pipes for building; asphalt, pitch and bitumen; non- metallic transportable buildings; monuments, not of metal.

Class 20.- Furniture & related goods

Furniture, mirrors, picture frames; goods- not included in other classes of wood, cork, reed, cane, wicker, horn, bone, ivory, whalebone, shell, amber, mother- of-pearl, meerschaum and substitutes for all these materials, or of plastics.

Class 21.- Household Items

Household or kitchen utensils and containers(not of precious metal or coated therewith; combs and sponges; brushes(except paints brushes; brush making materials; articles for cleaning purposes; steelwool; unworked or semi-worked glass- except glass used in building; glassware, porcelain and earthenware not included in other classes.

Class 22.- Ropes & related items

Ropes, string, nets, tents, awnings, tarpaulins, sails, sacks and bags- not included in other classes padding and stuffing materials(except of rubber or plastics; raw fibrous textile materials.

Class 23.- Yarns & Threads

Yarns and threads, for textile use.

Class 24.- Textiles (Fabrics)

Textiles and textile goods, not included in other classes; bed and table covers.

Class 25.- Garments & Footwear Clothing, footwear, headgear. Class 26.- Fancy Goods

Lace and embroidery, ribbons and braid; buttons, hooks and eyes, pins and needles; artificial flowers.

Class 27.- Floor coverings

Carpets, rugs, mats and matting, linoleum and other materials for covering existing floors; wall hangings- non-textile.

Class 28.- Toys & Sporting Articles

Games and playthings, gymnastic and sporting articles not included in other classes; decorations for Christmas trees.

Class 29.- Meats & Processed Foods

Meat, fish, poultry and game; meat extracts; preserved, dried and cooked fruits and vegetables; jellies, jams, fruit sauces; eggs, milk and milk products; edible oils and fats.

Class 30.- Tea, Coffee & cereals preparations

Coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, rice, tapioca, sago, artificial coffee; flour and preparations made from cereals, bread, pastry and confectionery, ices; honey, treacle; yeast, baking powder;  salt, mustard; vinegar, sauces,- condiments; spices; ice.

Class 31.- Fruits, Flowers, Vegetables & Agricultural Products

Agricultural, horticultural and forestry products and grains not included in other classes; live animals; fresh fruits and vegetables; seeds, natural plants and flowers; foodstuffs for animals, malt.

Class 32.- Light Beverages

Beers, mineral and aerated waters, and other non-alcoholic drinks; fruit drinks and fruit juices; syrups and other preparations for making beverages.

Class 33.- Wine and spirits

Alcoholic beverages- except beers.

Class 34.- Smokers’ articles

Tobacco, smokers’ articles, matches.

Trademark Classification of Services

Class 35.- Advertising, business, retailing and online services

Advertising, business management, business administration, office functions.

Class 36.- Real estate, insurance and financial

Insurance, financial affairs; monetary affairs; real estate affairs.

Class 37.- Building construction and repair

Building construction; repair; installation services.

Class 38.- Broadcasting and telecommunications


Class 39.- Transportation & Travels

Transport; packaging and storage of goods; travel arrangement.

Class 40.- Treatment of Materials

Treatment of materials.

Class 41.- Education & Entertainment

Education; providing of training; entertainment; sporting and cultural activities.

Class 42.- Design & Development Of Software & Hardware

Scientific and technological services and research and design relating thereto; industrial analysis and research services; design and development of computer hardware and software.

Class 43.- Restaurants & Hotel

Services for providing food and drink; temporary  accommodation.

Class 44.- Medical, Beauty & Agricultural

Medical services, veterinary services, hygienic and beauty care for human beings or animals; agriculture, horticulture and forestry services.

Class 45.- Legal, Social & Security Services

Legal services; security services for the protection of property  and individuals; personal and social services rendered by others to meet the needs of individuals.